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中粮海外糖业交流与合作

发布日期:2015-8-8 11:39:26阅读次数:

 

中粮屯河副总经理 于作江、中粮屯河Tully糖业甘蔗生产经理 Greg Shannon

Greg这样描述他的感受:“这次考察收获颇丰!我真切地感受到中粮是一个大家庭,Tully糖业和来宝虽有大洋相隔,但亲如兄弟!”Greg还记录了考察中的见闻和心得,在此特与各位同仁分享。

去年初,作为来宝农业兼并工作尽职调查小组的成员,我前往巴西对来宝的食糖业务进行了调研。期间,我们实地考察了来宝的四家糖厂、蔗区、铁路中转站和港口设施等资产,积累了许多第一手资料,为公司在4月份的收购决策提供了参考。在考察中我发现,来宝糖业与澳洲Tully糖业之间在农业管理、工业生产、商业运作等领域有许多相似之处,但也存在不少差异。

5月份,我有幸陪同于旭波总裁再次前往巴西和美国,考察Nidera和来宝农业在农业种植、加工、物流、仓储等方面的资产,同时与两家公司在当地的经营管理团队进行了深入的接触和沟通。这次考察进一步加深了中粮和Nidera及来宝农业之间的相互理解,推动了并购后的深入合作;鼐┖蟛痪,来宝农业在美国、新加坡的食糖贸易团队也到北京进行了回访。双方经过积极的讨论,达成了许多成果:一是共同探讨全球糖业商情共享和研发机制,定期召开北京、巴西、美国、澳洲和香港之间的商情交流电话会议,中粮屯河糖业团队与来宝糖业团队共同分享中国、巴西、澳洲乃至全球范围的食糖行业信息,研讨糖期现货动态,为屯河糖业期货保值和现货营销提供了信息支持。二是目前已与来宝在食糖贸易领域开始了实质性合作,后续还将不断加大合作力度。

通过考察,我同时感受到农业是来宝糖业资产链条中的关键,也是未来改进提升空间的最大一环。在全球,无论是巴西、印度、泰国、澳洲,还是中国,食糖产业链中的农业成本均超过整体成本的50%。尤其是在中国,不管是甘蔗糖还是甜菜糖,农业成本甚至占到80%以上。因此,屯河团队一直以来非常重视农业,重视与农户建立长远的合作共赢关系。夏令和董事长更是把屯河企业与农户的关系比作是“手心与手背”骨肉相连融为一体。在这一思想的指导下,近几年屯河在广西、新疆和澳洲的下属企业在农业投入与管理方面都取得了长足的进步。

此外,澳洲食糖产业具有历史久、机械化程度高、管理体系完善等优势,因此很有必要让澳洲Tully糖业和来宝糖业进行一次农业领域的“亲密对话”。在我的推荐下,屯河特派Tully糖业甘蔗生产经理Greg Shannon作为随总裁出访小组的一员,于5月底前往巴西,访问来宝农业的糖业资产,并在农业领域进行了深入的交流和学习。在两周时间内,Greg与来宝的糖业团队建立了良好的友谊,搭建起长效的联络窗口。返回Tully糖业后,Greg这样描述他的感受:“这次考察收获颇丰!我真切地感受到中粮是一个大家庭,Tully糖业和来宝虽有大洋相隔,但亲如兄弟!”Greg还记录了考察中的见闻和心得,在此特与各位同仁分享。


My role was to observe and compare the Sugar cane production system operated by Noble in the Sao Paulo state with the Tully Sugar Limited system in the wet tropics area of Queensland. I observed many similarities between the two industries but also became aware of many differences during my visit.
这次我的任务是考察来宝在圣保罗州的甘蔗种植体系,与Tully糖业在昆士兰州热带地区的甘蔗种植体系作比较。通过考察,我发现二者之间有不少相似之处,也存在着许多差异。

Tully Sugar-The Tully Sugar region where I am based is the wettest area in Australia, with an annual average rainfall of over 3M with 32 000 hectares providing Sugar cane to Tully Mill , all within a 70km radius. Since 2012 Tully has undergone an expansion, by reclaiming some land back to Sugar cane production from other agricultural uses and new areas of land opened up, some of which was previously used for cattle grazing. The estimated 2014 crop is 2.4M tonnes. Tully Sugar own and operate close to 2,000 hectares or 6% of the total area with the bulk of the crop produced by individual grower suppliers.
我所在的Tully糖业位于澳大利亚最潮湿的地域,年均降水累积超过3米,糖厂压榨的甘蔗产自32,000公顷的土地,供应半径在70公里以内。2010年以来,Tully糖业也进行了自主种植的扩张,一方面将部分自有土地退林/退牧还蔗,一方面开发原先用于畜牧养殖的新土地,2014榨季预计甘蔗总产量达240万吨。目前,Tully糖业自主种植面积将近2,000公顷,为甘蔗供应总面积的6%,这些土地为糖厂所有,绝大部分甘蔗由独立蔗农供应。

Noble Sugar-The four Sugar Cane production areas operated by Noble are based around 4 mills which are known as Potirendaba (Pot), Catanduva (Cat), Sebastionopolis (Seb) and Meriandano (Mer). Noble Sugar has been in an expansion mode since 2010 with the Sugar cane Supplied by a mixture of individual suppliers and cane grown by Noble under various leasing arrangements with landholders. The acquisition of Sebastionopolis and the building of Meriandano mill as a green field site in 2010 provided large expansion to the business, which now crushes between 14-16M tonnes annually.
来宝糖业共有Potirendaba(Pot)、Catanduva(Cat)、Sebastionopolis(Seb)和Meriandano(Mer)四家糖厂,蔗区基本布局在这四家糖厂周围。2010年以来,来宝糖业一直在扩张生产规模,其中两项重要举措就是2010年收购Sebastionopolis糖厂以及新建Meriandano糖厂。目前来宝年均压榨甘蔗1,400-1,600万吨。甘蔗来源中一部分由独立蔗农供应,其余部分向当地农场主租赁土地进行自主种植。

Cultural Practice and Planting-Noble uses a mixture of conventional and minimum tillage planting with close to 70 % of plant cane planted using minimum tillage in 2014. Minimum tillage involves reliance on herbicides to remove old crops or fallow crops and after just one cultivation, the cane is planted using billet planters guided by GPS. This system has reduced the cost of production significantly in recent years. This is very similar to Tully where a range of systems of land preparation is used, and predominantly Billet planters are used with GPS.
来宝采取传统农业耕作和免耕/少耕相结合的模式,2014年免耕/少耕的比例达到70%。免耕/少耕方式首先是依靠除草剂来清除土壤中的陈蔗和休耕作物,并且土地只耕作一次,紧接着使用预切段式(蔗节)播种机,利用GPS技术进行种植。近年来,这样的农作方式在节省甘蔗种植成本上愈显成效。Tully糖业在播种之前,也会采取一系列土壤准备措施,使用预切段式(蔗节)播种机,利用GPS技术进行甘蔗种植。

Fertilization – Noble make good use of mill by products: filter cake, (similar to Mill mud in Tully) and a by-product of ethanol production. Granular fertilizer is also used. Generally the rates of fertilizer per hectare are very similar to Tully, with the main difference being the availability of the ethanol by product which Tully does not have.
来宝在糖厂生产废料循环利用方面做得很好,压榨过程中产生的滤泥,以及乙醇生产过程中产生的副产品,都成为肥料用于土壤增肥,此外也使用颗粒肥料。每公顷甘蔗的肥料成本来宝与Tully糖业大致相当,唯一的区别是巴西的糖厂还生产乙醇,过程中产生的副产品可当做肥料,而澳洲糖厂不生产乙醇。

Irrigation – Noble uses irrigation of a by-product of ethanol production in areas close to two of the mills. This provides nutrient as well. Currently Noble is investigating the use of irrigation for Cane production areas closer to the mills to reduce transport costs and increase yields. Tully Sugar does not have the need for irrigation in most seasons, even though some areas are drier than others, very rarely would irrigation be required.
目前,来宝在其中两个糖厂附近的蔗区使用乙醇生产副产品作为灌溉用料,增强土壤肥力。而且正在研究系统化的灌溉方案,灌溉面积覆盖全部蔗区,目的是提高甘蔗产量,降低肥料运输成本。Tully地区降水充沛,尽管有些年份相对干燥,但基本上不需要实施整体性灌溉。

Pest and Disease-Weed management is major issue for Noble as it is in Tully. Both regions have areas of Sugar Cane Production that were once cattle production regions with introduced weed species that were once cattle pasture. Noble are experimenting with weed mapping to assist crop management teams locate and manage heavy weed infestations.
在甘蔗治草、治虫、防病方面,无论来宝还是Tully糖业都有部分农场曾用做畜牧养殖,专门种植过牧草。退牧还蔗后,治草成为了一个重要课题。来宝正在尝试制定一份包含所有种植区域的杂草分布图,用来协助种植团队定位草患严重的地区,并进行治理。

For the Sugar cane diseases there were many similarities with Tully, where diseases such as Sugar Cane Smut, Top rot, and Pineapple disease occur but are well managed, as they are in Brazil. Noble also has some incidence of Mosaic disease which Tully does not have, while Tully has the soil fungal disease Pachymetra which Noble does not seem to suffer from. For Sugar Cane pests one of the most prolific found on Noble produced crops was several species of Sugar cane borers, which are generally not an issue in Tully.
双方遭受的甘蔗病害主要有黑穗病、顶腐病、凤梨病等,但目前都得到有效控制。从地域差异角度看,来宝需要防治甘蔗花叶病,Tully糖业需要防治因土壤真菌诱发的甘蔗根腐病。来宝的甘蔗经常遭受虫蛀,澳大利亚的甘蔗基本不受虫蛀。

Noble uses information from CTC for pest and disease identification while Tully uses Sugar Research Australia publications for the same purpose.
来宝从巴西甘蔗技术中心获取防病虫害方面的资讯,Tully糖业则从澳洲食糖研究中心获取相关信息。

Varieties-Noble sugar use CTC bred varieties, with up to 20 available for planting but typically 5 or 6 are used more the others. This is very similar to Tully sugar, which has more than 20 varieties available with typically 6 main ones grown in any given crop cycle.
来宝种植巴西甘蔗技术中心培育提供的20多个甘蔗品种,其中有5-6个品种因适种性好,经济性强,为主要栽培品种。这种情况与Tully糖业基本相似。

Harvesting-While visiting Noble I was able to spend time with harvester crews and observe first-hand the issues faced in producing a good quality cane for milling in Brazil, which are very similar issues to what we face in Australia. While the emphasis on cane quality, cane loss and Extraneous Matter is similar to Tully, the way the harvesting sector is operated by Noble is vastly different however. This was in fact the biggest difference between Tully and Noble that I observed. While the Tully crop is harvested by private contractors paid on weight, and Tully Sugar Limited operates the transport system of getting the harvested cane to the mill, it is virtually the opposite for Noble. Noble operate a range of company owned harvesting machines operated by teams of staff working on wages and operate 8 hour shifts, with 3 shifts per 24 hour period, while the transport of Sugar cane to the mill is privately contracted.

The Noble harvesting teams operate to parameters such as ground speed, extraneous matter and cane loss.
Transport – all cane harvested by the Noble teams is transported to the mill on trucks, each the 30t bins which are operated by private contractors. In Tully the cane, once harvested, is placed in bins or trucks owned by Tully Sugar and transported to the mills in Tully sugar trains. The Noble group relies completely on Truck transport.
在考察期间,我与来宝甘蔗收获团队零距离接触,一起深入田间地头,以Tully糖业的自身实践和经验为基础,充分了解巴西生产优质甘蔗所需解决的问题。来宝与Tully糖业一样,非常注重到厂甘蔗的质量,努力减少收获过程中的甘蔗损失和杂质含量。但双方收获环节的操作模式却有显著不同。

来宝:糖厂拥有甘蔗收割机,由自己的收割团队操作,实行24小时三班倒模式,支付员工计时工资的几项主要指标是甘蔗收获速度、杂质含量和甘蔗损失率。甘蔗运输由第三方运输商负责,交通工具为30吨卡车。

Tully糖业模式:与独立的第三方签订协议,由第三方负责收获甘蔗,糖厂按照甘蔗重量付款。甘蔗运输由糖厂负责,交通工具为铁路车厢和卡车。


Environmental considerations-One of the biggest surprises during the visit was learning of the severity of Environment considerations that business’s like Noble have to operate in. These include i) Tree clearing laws which state 20% of Vegetation must be maintained on enw land, this came into effect in 2014 and means it is very difficult to open up new areas for sugar cane production and ii) Cane Burning laws which came into effect in 2014 where no burning is allowed for any Cane production area greater the 100 hectares.
在考察中,巴西对来宝这样的糖企在环境;し矫娴难细褚笕梦沂终鸷,体现在:一是按照2014年颁布的绿地开发法律,所有新开发的土地须保留20%面积的植被,这一条规定限制了对土地资源的随意开发;二是按照2014年颁布的甘蔗燃烧法律,凡面积大于100公顷的农场上不得进行甘蔗燃烧。

Human Resources-Finding good skilled people seems to be just as much issue in Brazil as Australia. Noble operate a very successful system of trainees which provides staff development and succession planning in all aspects of the business and in the Agricultural sector many of the professional managers I interacted with had started their careers as trainees. Many were already well qualified and learnt all aspect of the job, from planting, crop maintenance, and harvesting and grower relations. I was very impressed with this system.
在考察中我深切地感受到,无论在澳洲还是在巴西,人是重要的生产力,双方对农业技术人员的需求都是迫切的。来宝有一套非常全面、完善的人才培养和梯队建设体系,涵盖到业务的方方面面。在来宝的农业部门,我接触到了不少经理级别人员,他们中有很大部分都是从“培训生”起步的。经过一段时间的培养和塑造,这些人掌握了很好的技术,对甘蔗种植、栽培、收获,再到蔗农关系维护等一整套业务流程有深入和独到的理解。我对此印象非常深刻。

Supplier Relations-One of the highlights of the visit was seeing first-hand the importance Noble sugar places on grower supplier relations. During the visit several major growers supplier were visited. Typical of the suppliers is FM Farming, (Fabiano Miguel) who growers and harvest 500 00 tonnes of cane and supplies Noble. His company employs a large number of staff.
考察期间我也切身体会到来宝对于蔗农关系的重视程度。我与来宝相关人员一起拜访了几家蔗农,其中规模较大的一家是FM Farming (Fabiano Miguel),甘蔗产量为50,000吨,雇佣员工数量不少。

Conclusions-I am very enthusiastic about the time I spent with Noble and the relationships forged. I remain in contact with my counterpart’s in Brazil and am a strong advocate of forging closer professional interaction between Agricultural production staff to increase understating and knowledge, as while the issues we deal with have local variations, the basic principles are the same.

Noble Sugar Agricultural staff are trying many innovative ways to reduce the cost of production while maintain a reliable sugar cane supply , just as we are doing in Tully and there is much we can learn from each other.
此次赴来宝考察,实现了Tully糖业与来宝之间的第一次亲密沟通,增进了相互的了解,我感到很高兴。归来后,我继续保持与来宝糖业团队的联络,也希望双方的农业团队在未来能有更加紧密的交流。双方在甘蔗种植过程中面对的问题可能有地域差异,但农业的基本原理是相同的。

我看到,来宝农业团队在确保甘蔗供应的同时,努力尝试许多农业降本增效的创新举措,而在Tully糖业我们也是这么做的。我认为双方在许多方面可以互相学习,互相借鉴。

 

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